Dan Reed
Dan Reed

Research Biologist


Marine Science Institute
University of California
Santa Barbara, CA 93106-6150

Office: (805) 893-8363
Fax: (805) 893-8062

Research Interests

My primary research interests pertain to the ecology on coastal marine ecosystems and the ecological and physical processes that structure them. Much of my work has focused on determining the mechanisms that allow these systems to recover from natural disturbance and the application of this knowledge to restoration programs designed to mitigate impacts caused by human disturbance. Giant kelp forests and seagrass beds have been the focal ecosystems for most of my research, which includes studies on dispersal, recruitment, reproduction, population dynamics, community ecology, primary production and trophic interactions.


Click HERE to search for Dan's publications in SBC LTER's database.

Reed, D.C. and M.S. Foster. 1984. The effects of canopy shading on algal recruitment and growth in a giant kelp forest. Ecology 65:937 948.

Harrold, C. and D.C. Reed. 1985. Sea urchins, food availability and kelp forest community structure. Ecology 66:1160-1169.

VanBlaricom, G.R., D.C. Reed, C. Harrold, and J. Bodkin. 1986. A sublittoral population of Pleurophycus gardneri Schell and Saunders 1900 (Phaeophyceae:Laminariaceae) in central California. S. Calif. Acad. of Sci. 85:120-122.

Laur, D.R., A.W. Ebeling, and D.C. Reed. 1986. Experimental evaluations of substrate types as barriers to sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus spp.) movement. Mar. Biol. 93:209-215.

Reed, D.C.1987. Factors affecting the production of sporophylls in the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 113:60-69.

Hughes, T.P., D.C. Reed, and M.J. Boyle. 1987. Herbivory on coral reefs: community structure following mass-mortalities of sea urchins. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 113:39-59.

Reed, D.C., D.R. Laur, and A.W. Ebeling. 1988. Variation in algal dispersal and recruitment: the importance of episodic events. Ecol. Monogr. 58:321-335.

Hempel, W.M., C.W. Sutton, D. Kaska, D.C. Ord, D.C. Reed, D.R. Laur, A.W. Ebeling, and D.D. Eardley. 1989. Purification of species specific antibodies to carbohydrate components Macrocystis pyrifera. J. Phycol. 25:144-149.

Hymansen, Z., D.C. Reed, M.S. Foster, J. Carter. 1990. The validity of using morphological characteristics as predictors of age in the kelp Pterygophora californica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 59:295-304.

Eardley, D.D., C.W. Sutton, W.M. Hempel, D.C. Reed and A.W. Ebeling. 1990. Monoclonal antibodies specific for sulfated polysaccharides on the surface of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae). J. Phycol. 26:54-62.

Reed, D.C. 1990. The effects of variable settlement and early competition on patterns of kelp recruitment. Ecology 71:776-787.

Reed, D.C. 1990. An experimental evaluation of density dependence in a subtidal algal population. Ecology. 71:2286-2296.

Reed, D.C., M. Neushul, and A.W. Ebeling. 1991. The role of density on gametophyte growth and reproduction in the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera and Pterygophora californica. J. Phycol. 27:361-366.

Carr, M.H. and D.C. Reed. 1992. Harvest refuges and their potential for enhancing reef fisheries in southern California. In P.M. Grifman and S.E. Yoder (Editors), Perspectives on the Marine Environment, Sea Grant Program, University of California, Los Angeles.

Reed, D.C., C.D. Amsler and A.W. Ebeling. 1992. Dispersal in kelps: factors affecting spore swimming and competency. Ecology 73:1577-1585.

Amsler, C.D., D.C. Reed and M. Neushul. 1992. The microclimate inhabited by algal propagules. British Phycological Journal 27:253-270.

Neushul, M., C.D. Amsler, D.C. Reed and R.J. Lewis. 1992. The introduction of marine plants for aquacultural purposes. pp. 103-138. In: A. Rosenfield (ed.), Movement and dispersal of biotic agents into aquatic ecosystems. Maryland Sea Grant College, College Park, MD.

Brzezinski, M., D.C. Reed, and C.D. Amsler. 1993. Neutral lipids as major storage products in zoospores of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. J. Phycology 29:16-23.

Carr, M.H., and D.C. Reed. 1993. Conceptual issues relevant to marine harvest refuges: examples from temperate marine fishes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50:2019-2028.

Reed, D.C. and R.J. Lewis. 1994. Effects of an oil and gas production effluent on the colonization potential of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) zoospores. Marine Biology 119:277-283.

Reed, D.C. 1994. Giant forests of the sea. The World & I. July 202-207.

Reed, D.C., R. J. Lewis, and M. Anghera. 1994. Effects of an open coast oil production outfall on patterns of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) recruitment. Mar Biol 120:26-31.

Reed, D.C., J. N. Norris, and M.S. Foster. 1994. Dr. Michael Neushul, Jr. (1933-1993). Botanica Marina. 37:287-292.

Ambrose, R.F., J. Boland, W. W. Murdoch, P.T. Raimondi, and D.C. Reed. 1995. The San Onofre nuclear generating station mitigation reef: monitoring issues. Pages 587-592. In Proceedings from the International Conference on Ecological System Enhancement Technology for Aquatic Environments. Japan International Marine Science and Technology Federation, Tokyo.

Raimondi, P.T. and D.C. Reed. 1996. Determining the spatial extent of ecological impacts caused by local anthropogenic disturbances in coastal marine habitats. Pages 179-198, In R.J. Schmitt and C.W. Osenberg (eds.). Detecting Ecological Impacts: Concepts and Applications in Coastal Habitats, Academic Press, San Diego.

Reed, D.C., A.W. Ebeling, T.W. Anderson, and M. Anghera. 1996. Differential reproductive responses to fluctuating resources in two seaweeds with different reproductive strategies. Ecology. 77:300-316.

Canestro, D. P.T. Raimondi, D.C. Reed, R.J. Schmitt, and S.J. Holbrook. 1996. A study of methods and techniques for detecting ecological impacts. pages 53-67 In Methods and techniques of underwater research, Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Scientists Symposium. AAUS, Nahant, MA.

Reed, D.C., A.W. Ebeling, T.W. Anderson, and M. Anghera. 1997. Role of reproductive synchrony in the colonization potential of kelp. Ecology 78:2443-2457.

Reed, D.C., SJ. Holbrook, E. Solomon, and M. Anghera. 1998. Studies on germination and root development in the surfgrass Phyllospadix torreyi: Implications for habitat restoration. Aquatic Botany 62:71-80.

Reed, D.C., M.A. Brzezinski, D.A. Coury, W.M. Graham, and R.L. Petty. 1999. Neutral lipids in macroalgal spores and their role in swimming. Marine Biology 133-737-744.

Blanchette, C. A., S. Worcester, D. C. Reed, and S. J. Holbrook. 1999. Spatial variation in seed attachment and recruitment of surfgrass, Phyllospadix torreyi. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 184:119-128.

Holbrook, S.J., D.C. Reed and J. S. Bull. 1999. Methods for enhancing habitat value of artificial structures by establishing surfgrass (Phyllospadix torreyi). In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Artificial Reefs and Aquatic Habitats (7th CARAH), San Remo, Italy, pp. 582-589.

Holbrook, S.J., D.C. Reed, K. Hansen and C.A. Blanchette. 2000. Spatial and temporal patterns of predation on seeds of surfgrass, Phyllospadix torreyi. Marine Biology 136:739-747.

Reed, D.C. 2000. The microecology of macroalgal blooms. Journal of Phycology 36:1-2.

Reed, D.C., P.T. Raimondi, M.H. Carr and L. Goldwasser. 2000. The role of dispersal and disturbance in determining spatial heterogeneity in sedentary organisms. Ecology 81:2011-2026.

Schroeter, S.C., D.C. Reed, D.J. Kushner, J.A. Estes, and D.S. Ono. 2001. The use of marine reserves in evaluating the dive fishery for the warty sea cucumber (Parastichopus parvimensis) in California, USA. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58:1773-1781.

Gaylord, B., D.C. Reed, P.T. Raimondi, L. Washburn, and S.R. McLean.2002. A physically-based model of macroalgal spore dispersal in the wave and current-dominated nearshore. Ecology 83:1239-1251.

Holbrook, S.J., D.C. Reed and J. S. Bull. 2002. Survival experiments with outplanted seedlings of surfgrass (Phyllospadix torreyi) to enhance establishment on artificial structures. . ICES Journal of Marine Science 59:350-355.

Page, H.M., S.C. Schroeter, D C. Reed. R.F. Ambrose, J. Callaway, J. Dixon. 2003. An inexpensive method to identify the elevation of tidally inundated habitat in coastal wetlands. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 102:130-142.

Bull, J.S., D.C. Reed, S J. Holbrook. 2004. An experimental evaluation of different methods of restoring Phyllospadix torreyi (Surfgrass). Restoration Ecology. 12:70-79.

Reed, D.C., S.C. Schroeter, and P.T. Raimondi.. 2004. Spore supply and habitat availability as sources of recruitment limitation in giant kelp. Journal of Phycology 40:275-284.

Raimondi P.T., Reed D.C., B. Gaylord, and L. Washburn. 2004. Effects of self-fertilization in the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. Ecology 85:3267-3276.

Gaylord, B., D.C. Reed, L. Washburn, and P.T. Raimondi. 2004. Physical-biological coupling in spore dispersal of kelp forest macroalgae. Journal of Marine Systems 49:19-39.

Reed, D.C,. S.C. Schroeter, D. Huang, T.W. Anderson, and R.F. Ambrose. 2006. Quantitative assessment of different artificial reef designs in mitigating losses to kelp forest fishes. Bull Marine Science 78:133-150.

Reed, D.C., B P. Kinlan, P.T. Raimondi, L. Washburn, B. Gaylord, P. T. Drake. 2006. A metapopulation perspective on patch dynamics and connectivity of giant kelp. Pages 352-386 In J.P. Kritzer and P.F. Sale (eds) Marine Metapopulations. Academic Press. San Diego.

Reed, D.C., S.C. Schroeter, D. Huang. 2006. An experimental investigation of the use of artificial reefs to mitigate the loss of giant kelp forest habitat. A case study of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station’s artificial reef project. California Sea Grant College Program University of California, San Diego, CA Publication No. T-058. 143 pp.

Foster, M. S., M. S. Edwards, D. C. Reed, D. S. Schiel, and R. C. Zimmerman. 2006. Letters: Top-down vs. bottom-up effects in kelp forests. Science. 313:1737-1738.

Gaylord, B. D.C. Reed, P.T. Raimondi, and L. Washburn. In press. Macroalgal spore dispersal in coastal environments: mechanistic insights revealed by theory and experiment. Ecological Monographs.

Gaylord, B., J. H. Rosman, D. C. Reed, J. R. Koseff, J. Fram, S. MacIntyre, K. Arkema, C. McDonald, J. Largier, M. A. Brzezinski, P. T. Raimondi, S. G. Monismith, and B. Mardian. 2007. Spatial patterns of flow and their modification within and around a giant kelp forest. Limnology and Oceanography 52:1838-1852.

Page, H. M., D. C. Reed, M. A. Brzezinski, J. Melack, J. E. Dugan. 2008. Assessing the importance of land and marine sources of organic matter to kelp forest food webs. Marine Ecology Progress Series 360:47-62.

Rassweiler, A., K. K. Arkema, D. C. Reed, M. A. Brzezinski, and R. C. Zimmerman. 2008. Net primary production, growth and standing crop of Macrocystis pyrifera in southern California. Ecology 89:2068.

Fram, J. P., H. L. Stewart M. A. Brzezinski, B. Gaylord, D. C. Reed, S. L. Williams, and S. MacIntyre. 2008. Physical pathways and utilization of nitrate supply to the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. Limnology and Oceanography 53:1589-1603.

Reed, D. C., A. Rassweiler, K. K. Arkema. 2008. Biomass rather than growth determines net primary production by giant kelp. Ecology 89:2493-2505.

Stewart, H. L.,J. P. Fram, D. C. Reed, S. L. Williams, M. A. Brzezinski, S. MacIntyre, and B. Gaylord. 2009. Differences in growth, morphology and tissue C and N of Macrocystis pyrifera within and at the outer edge of a giant kelp forest in California, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series.375:101-112.

Reed, D. C. S. J. Holbrook, C.A. Blanchette, S. Worcester. 2009. Patterns and sources of variation in flowering, seed supply, and seedling recruitment in surfgrass. Marine Ecology Progress Series 384:97-106.

Alberto, F., C. Whitmer, N. C. Coelho, M. Zippay, E. Varela-Alvarez, P. T. Raimondi, D. Reed, and E. A. Serrão. 2009. Microsatellite markers for the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. Conservation Genetics: DOI : 10.1007/s10592-10009-19853-10599.

Reed, D. C., A. Rassweiler, K. K. Arkema. 2009. Density derived estimates of standing crop and net primary production in the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. Marine Biology 156:2077-2083.

Arkema, K. A. D. C. Reed, S. C. Schroeter. 2009. Giant kelp determines the structure and temporal variability of rocky reef communities. . Ecology 90:3126-3137.

Miller, R. J., D. C. Reed, and M. A. Brzezinski. 2009. Community structure and productivity of subtidal turf and foliose algal assemblages. Marine Ecology Progress Series 388:1-11.

Reed, D. C. and M. A. Brzezinski. 2009. Kelp forests. In: Laffoley, D.d’A. & Grimsditch, G. (eds). The management of natural coastal carbon sinks. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 53 pp.

Alberto, F., P.T. Raimondi, D.C. Reed, N.C. Coelho, R. Leblois A. Whitmer, E.A. Serrão. Habitat continuity and geographic distance predict population genetic differentiation in giant kelp. Ecology 91:49-56.

Cavanaugh, K. C, D. A. Siegel, B. P. Kinlan, and D. C. Reed. 2010. Scaling giant kelp field measurements to regional scales using satellite observations. Marine Ecology Progress Series 403:13-27.

Miller, R. J., D. C. Reed, and M. A. Brzezinski.. 2011. Partitioning of primary production among giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera), understory macroalgae, and phytoplankton on a temperate reef. Limnology and Oceanography 56:119-132.

Byrnes, J. E., D. C. Reed, B. J. Cardinale, K. C. Cavanaugh, S. J. Holbrook, R. J. Schmitt. 2011. Climate-driven increases in storm frequency simplify kelp forest food webs. Global Change Biology 17:2513-25-24. Cavanaugh, K. C, D. A. Siegel, D. C. Reed, P. E. Dennison. 2011. Environmental controls of giant kelp biomass in the Santa Barbara Channel. Marine Ecology Progress Series 429:1-17.

Alberto, F., P. T. Raimondi, D. C. Reed, J. R. Watson, D. A. Siegel, S. Mitarai, N. Coelho, E. A. Serrao. 2011. Isolation by oceanographic distance explains genetic structure for Macrocystis pyrifera in the Santa Barbara Channel. Molecular Ecology 20:2543-2554.

Reed, D. C., A. Rassweiler, M. H. Carr, K. C. Cavanaugh, D. P. Malone, and D. A. Siegel. Wave disturbance overwhelms top-down and bottom-up control of primary production in California kelp forests. Ecology. in press.